Republic day

indian-flag

Part-I

Uncle, what is republic day

When a young girl, six years old, asks what is republic day, why  is it a holiday, what do you answer ? Grow up a little more, then I shall tell you, you will not understand  now ? Be happy with flag hoisting, the flowers dropping, singing of Jana gana mana and the sweets ?

Independence day, we can explain to them as a fairy tale.There were people from England who came to our house and ate our food and beat us up.  Mahatma Gandhi,  Bose and other uncles , fought with them for many days, with guns and sticks (difficult to explain non violence) and chased  the big bad wolves away.

Our country got independence, we were free and no body to beat us. We can not tell her, now, our own uncles are beating us.

Coming back to republic day, even many adults have forgotten what it is about or is not bothered to know. You may get answers like something to do with constitution of India , something to do with Ambedkar.

The answer to this is never at the top of my head unlike Independence day. It takes a few seconds before I start answering.

Republic day is a celebration of binding us all together with the constitution of India, comradeship with fellow citizens, a necessity

Independence day gives you a joy of freedom (don’t bother from what), a comradeship with fellow citizens, its got to do with the heart.

Let me try answering the kid about Republic day.

They made a book many years ago, that tells our kings, queens and  us , how to be  good boys and girls, not to do naughty things. On republic day, it is the birthday of the book. I am trying hard to explain to the kid, some body help!!!

Before we talk about what is a Republic or Republic day, lets first define Indian constitution

It is a nation or state’s governing law, in other words a law to govern

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles and the duties of citizens. … The nation is governed by it.

republic (from Latin: res publica) is a sovereign state or country which is organized with a form of government in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of land.

Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body to govern itself without any interference from outside sources or bodies

Republic Day,  honours the date on which the Constitution of India came into force on 26 January 1950 replacing the Government of India Act (1935) as the governing document of India.

 

Why 26 January

26 January was chosen as the Republic day because it was on this day in 1930 when the Declaration of Indian Independence (Purna Swaraj) was proclaimed by the Indian National Congress as opposed to the Dominion status offered by the British Regime.

It is one of three national holidays in India, the other two being Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti.

 

Delhi Republic day Parade

Delhi Republic Day parade is held in the capital, New Delhi. Commencing from the gates of the Rashtrapati Bhavan (the President’s residence), Raisina Hill on Rajpath past the India Gate, this event is the main attraction of India’s Republic Day Celebrations lasting 3 days. The parade showcases India’s Defence Capability, Cultural and Social Heritage.

Nine to twelve different regiments of the Indian Army in addition to the Navy, and Air Force with their bands march past in all their finery and official decorations. The President of India who is the Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Armed Forces, takes the salute. Twelve contingents of various para-military forces of India and other civil forces also take part in this parade.

images_1images_2images_3

 

Rehearsals of republic day parade 2017

parade

Parade

A tableau from the eastern state of West Bengal is displayed during the Republic Day parade in New Delhi, India, January 26, 2016. REUTERS/Altaf Hussain
A tableau from the eastern state of West Bengal is displayed during the Republic Day parade in New Delhi, India, January 26, 2016. REUTERS/Altaf Hussain

 

 

Beating Retreat

 

The Beating Retreat ceremony is held after officially denoting the end of Republic Day festivities. It is conducted on the evening of 29 January, the third day after the Republic Day. It is performed by the bands of the three wings of the military, the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force. The venue is Raisina Hill and an adjacent square, Vijay Chowk, flanked by the North and South block of the Rashtrapati Bhavan (President’s Palace) towards the end of Rajpath.

The Chief Guest of the function is the President of India who arrives escorted by the (PBG), a cavalry unit. When the President arrives, the PBG commander asks the unit to give the National Salute, which is followed by the playing of the Indian National Anthem, Jana Gana Mana, by the Army. The Army develops the ceremony of display by the massed bands in which Military Bands, Pipe and Drum Bands, Buglers and Trumpeters from various Army Regiments besides bands from the Navy and Air Force take part which play popular tunes like Abide With Me, Mahatma Gandhi’s favourite hymn, and Saare Jahan Se Achcha at the end.

beating_the_retreat

Rehearsal of retreat

Rest of the country also celebrates, on a smaller scale, however one common thing that makes everybody happy is the holiday.

Every year, we have a chief guest from a foreign country. This year, 2017 it is Crown Prince Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, from Abu Dhabi, UAE.

 

END of Part – I,  you have a chance to quit here

 

Part – II

 

Chief guests in republic day parade

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Year Guest name Country Note
1950 President Sukarno[1]  Indonesia
1951 King Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah[2]    Nepal
1952 Information unavailable
1953 Information unavailable
1954 King Jigme Dorji Wangchuck  Bhutan
1955 Governor General Malik Ghulam Muhammad  Pakistan First guest for parade at Rajpath
1956 Information unavailable
1957 Information unavailable
1958 Marshall Ye Jianying  China
1959 Information unavailable
1960 Chairman Kliment Voroshilov  Soviet Union
1961 Queen Elizabeth II  United Kingdom
1962 Information unavailable
1963 King Norodom Sihanouk  Cambodia
1964 Information unavailable
1965 Food and Agriculture Minister Rana Abdul Hamid  Pakistan 2nd invitation
1966 Information unavailable
1967 Information unavailable
1968 Chairman Alexei Kosygin  Soviet Union 2nd invitation Two guests
President Josip Broz Tito[10]  Yugoslavia
1969 Prime Minister Todor Zhivkov[11]  Bulgaria
1970 Information unavailable
1971 President Julius Nyerere[12]  Tanzania
1972 Prime Minister Seewoosagur Ramgoolam [13]  Mauritius
1973 President Mobutu Sese Seko[14]  Zaire
1974 President Josip Broz Tito  Yugoslavia 2nd invitation Two guests
Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike[15]  Sri Lanka
1975 President Kenneth Kaunda[16]  Zambia
1976 Prime Minister Jacques Chirac[17]  France
1977 First Secretary Edward Gierek[18]  Poland
1978 President Patrick Hillery[19]  Ireland
1979 Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser[20]  Australia
1980 President Valéry Giscard d’Estaing  France 2nd invitation
1981 President Jose Lopez Portillo[21]  Mexico
1982 King Juan Carlos I[22]  Spain
1983 President Shehu Shagari[23]  Nigeria
1984 King Jigme Singye Wangchuck[24]  Bhutan 2nd invitation
1985 President Raúl Alfonsín[25]  Argentina
1986 Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou[26]  Greece
1987 President Alan Garcia[27]  Peru
1988 President J. R. Jayewardene[28]  Sri Lanka 2nd invitation
1989 General Secretary Nguyen Van Linh[29]  Vietnam
1990 Prime Minister Anerood Jugnauth[30]  Mauritius 2nd invitation
1991 President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom[31]  Maldives
1992 President Mário Soares[31]  Portugal
1993 Prime Minister John Major[31]  United Kingdom 2nd invitation
1994 Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong[31]  Singapore
1995 President Nelson Mandela[32]  South Africa
1996 President Fernando Henrique Cardoso[33]  Brazil
1997 Prime Minister Basdeo Panday[33]  Trinidad and Tobago
1998 President Jacques Chirac[33]  France 3rd invitation
1999 King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev[33]    Nepal 2nd invitation
2000 President Olusegun Obasanjo[34]  Nigeria 2nd invitation
2001 President Abdelaziz Bouteflika[34]  Algeria
2002 President Cassam Uteem[34]  Mauritius 3rd invitation
2003 President Mohammed Khatami[34]  Iran
2004 President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva [35]  Brazil 2nd invitation
2005 King Jigme Singye Wangchuck[35]  Bhutan 3rd invitation
2006 King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz al-Saud[35]  Saudi Arabia
2007 President Vladimir Putin[35]  Russia 3rd invitation
2008 President Nicolas Sarkozy[35]  France 4th invitation
2009 President Nursultan Nazarbayev[35]  Kazakhstan
2010 President Lee Myung Bak[36]  South Korea
2011 President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono[37][38]  Indonesia 2nd invitation
2012 Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra[39]  Thailand
2013 King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck[40]  Bhutan 4th invitation
2014 Prime Minister Shinzo Abe[41]  Japan
2015 President Barack Obama  United States
2016 President François Hollande  France 5th invitation[42]
2017 Crown Prince Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan[43]  United Arab Emirates

 

 

Part-III

Parts of the Constitution and What They Deal with

PARTS SUBJECTS ARTICLES
I The Union and its territory 1-4
II Citizenship
III Fundamental Rights
IV Directive Principles of State Policy
IV- A Fundamental Duties
V THE UNION
The Executive
Parliament
Legislative Powers of the President
The Union Judiciary
Comptroller and Auditor- General of India
VI THE STATES              
General (Definition)
The Executive
The State Legislature
Legislative Powers of the Governor
The High Courts in the States
Subordinate Courts
VIII The Union Territories
IX The Panchayats
IX-A The Municipalities
IX-B The Co-Operative Societies
X The Scheduled and Tribal Areas
XI RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNION AND THE STATES
Legislative Relations
Administrative Relations
XII FINANCE, PROPERTY, CONTRACTS AND SUITS
Finance
Borrowing
Property, Contracts, Rights, Liabilities, Obligations and Suits
Right to Property
XIII Trade, Commerce and Intercourse within the territory of India
XIV SERVICES UNDER THE UNION AND THE STATES
Services
Public Service Commissions
XIV- A Tribunals
XV Elections
XVI Special Provisions Relating to Certain Classes
XVII OFFICIAL LANGUAGE
Language of the Union
Regional Languages
Languages of the Supreme Court, High Courts, etc.
Special Directives
XVIII Emergency Provisions
XIX Miscellaneous
XX Amendment of the Constitution
XXI Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions
XXII Short Title, Commencement, Authoritative Text in Hindi and Repeals

 

The Constitution has been amended several times so that the original 22 parts now stand at 25 parts.

 ADDED

Part of IV-A, 42nd amendment

Part of  XIV-A, 42nd amendment

REMOVED

Part of VII, 7th Amendment

 

Some Important Articles of the Constitution of India

Let us now look at some of the important articles of the Constitution of India and what they deal with.

ARTICLE DEALS WITH
1 Name and Territory of Union
3 New States Formation, Alteration of Boundaries etc.
13 Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the Fundamental Rights
14 Equality before Law (popularly known as Right to Equality)
15 Prohibition of Discrimination (on basis of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth)
16 Equality in case of Public Employment
17 Abolition of Untouchability
18 Abolition of Titles
19 Protection of Certain Rights to Freedom (popularly known as Right to Freedom)
19a Freedom of Speech & Expression

 

Definitions and tables from internet.

With due respect to the constitution of India and Salute to the flag on 26 Jan

JAI HIND

Published by:

rajmenon

Grateful for the love and respect received so far. Inspire, motivate and enable anybody to achieve their limitless limits-that is my goal for the rest of my life. Cofounder KelpHR, kelphr.com

Categories Uncategorized11 Comments

11 thoughts on “Republic day”

  1. A topical subject posed in its most delicate form. Best to pose it as a child’s curiosity since adults have no desire to know about it. The post if full of information (so much so that I have kept a copy for my own reference). I presume the list of foreign dignitary for the Republic Day must have been taken from an official soure. The gaps therefore are a shame (possibly insulting to the countries involved).

    Should the Republic Day be a holiday specially because we also have Independence Day (or possibly we can have the former but not the latter)? In the immediate decade of 50s and to celebrate the casting of a new nation starting off with a solid constitution the second holiday was justified and removing of 15-Aug as a holiday may not have been possible. But surely we can do so now (most countries I presume have only one). That would raise the importance and respect for the Republic Day.

    CONSTIUTION. That document which requires a (constitional) bench of the highest court to deliberate on the correct interpretation of some of its parts. A document that everyone swears by (and the judiciary that follows from it). Indeed a document one can swear by in a court of law and therefore equal if not higher than any religious scripture.

    It is sad that the constitution has been amended so many times (in comparison with 200 year old US constitution too many times). Indira Gandhi did major damage during emergency. But the document even in its amended form continues to be a solid foundation for our republic and a great equaliser for its majorly poor citizen.

    One of the provision the constition committee should have put in is to make any law that is more than 50 years old as invalid. That would have forced the legislatures to look at antiquated laws (as is partly done by present government) and bring them if necessary in their modern avatars commensurate with changed situation (relative to societal norms, economy, technology etc.)

    Unfortunately, downstream the judiciary and further down the executive (in the form of police first) have made a mockery of our constitution because a law is as good as its implementation. Today, a case is decided way before it comes before a court of law by the investigation – or lack of it – by the police. The executive also abuses the constitution in many ways. The article on ordinances is clear but invariably ordinances are promulgated just after a legislative session, an ordinance is repeated instead of taking it to the floor of the house. (Fortunately a constitutional judgement by Supreme Court on 30-Dec-16 will put paid to this abuse.)

    I am sure our constitution is used as a model by many countries. As with many home grown item, it is more admired outside than within India. Indians should be rightly proud of the Constitution and it is this pride which should represent nationalism than chest thumping about Pakistan’s misdeeds.

    1. Dr Wagle, you are an inspiration for me to write. You are among the few, who has been regularly analyzing my posts and adding value to it with sensible inputs. Thank You.

  2. Colors of the Indian flag – the top band is of Saffron colour, indicating the strength and courage of the country. The white middle band indicates peace and truth with Dharma Chakra. The last band is green in colour shows the fertility, growth and auspiciousness of the land

  3. ref:: http://www.india.com/buzz/do-you-know-the-first-10-chief-guests-india-invited-to-rajpath-for-the-republic-day-parade-890031/Part – II
    “However, the one tradition that has continued in India over the years has been the presence of a Chief Guest for the Republic Day Parade. India has invited political leaders from neighbouring countries and nations it shares alliances with in the past. While there have been leaders who have visited the nation many times as the Chief Guest (France being the maximum at being invited 5 times), there have been years when India did not have a Chief Guest at the Republic Day Parade. It was in 1952, 1953, 1956, 1957, 1959, 1962, 1964, 1966, 1967 and 1970 that India did not have a Chief Guest at the parade.”

    ref::https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_Day_(India)#History_of_Republic_Day

    “History of Republic Day
    India achieved independence from British raj on 15 August 1947 following the Indian independence movement noted for largely peaceful non-violent resistance and civil disobedience led by Mahatma Gandhi. The independence came through the Indian Independence Act 1947 (10 & 11 Geo 6 c 30), an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that partitioned British India into the two new independent Dominions of the British Commonwealth (later Commonwealth of Nations).[2] India obtained its independence on 15 August 1947 as a constitutional monarchy with George VI as head of state and the Earl Mountbatten as governor-general. The country, though, did not yet have a permanent constitution; instead its laws were based on the modified colonial Government of India Act 1935. On 28 August 1947, the Drafting Committee was appointed to draft a permanent constitution, with Dr B R Ambedkar as chairman.

    While India’s Independence Day celebrates its freedom from British Rule, the Republic Day celebrates the coming into force of its constitution. A draft constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on 4 November 1947.[3] The Assembly met, in sessions open to public, for 166 days, spread over a period of 2 years, 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. After many deliberations and some modifications, the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on 24 January 1950. Two days later, it came into effect throughout the whole nation.”

    That means INDIA became an independent nation/country only on January 26, 1950. Till then it was a dominion of British Commonwealth. Since January 26, 1930, Indians used to observe every January 26 as Independence Day (Swatantrya Din/Diwas) through rallies, marches, public meetings etc. to reiterate their resolve to throw out British Yoke of slavery. That’s why it was selected for effecting the constitution and named ‘Republic Day’ to avoid confusion with August 15, 1947.

    1. Thank you, Jogalekar Sir for the fill up of the history of republic and missing names of the chief guests. Your statement that India gets real independence on 26 January 1950 and its justification is an information I would like to share with my readers.

  4. A well framed statement in the Republic Day address of Director of IIT Mandi to the IIT Mandi family – while Independence Day represents the culmination of the freedom struggle, Republic Day represents the start of a nation’s journey into the future and cannot be any less important if not more!

  5. Thank you Menon for making me do some research in History. There are lot of things that we were not taught in our History classes.
    India was called “Dominion of India” from 1947 to 1950. India had an official King in George VI post independence and this type of government system that could be called ‘constitutional monarchy’.
    Many people in India still believe that a Dominion status is equivalent to an absolute independent status. A ‘dominion’ is a country of the British Commonwealth having its own government.
    Only on January 26th 1950 when India became a republic was the word Dominion replaced by Republic.
    And for many more years the heads of our Army, Navy & Air-force were British.
    A couple of years which followed immediately after independence were particularly trying for Indian leaders. Containing utterly unexpected horrors of partition, tricky business of princely state integration and accommodation of refugees were priority problems for Indian leadership.
    While performing fire fighting jobs on all these fronts, constitution was being drafted under Dr Ambedkar by a Constitution Committee which Dr Rajendra Prasad headed. Till the acceptance of the constitution, an ad hoc arrangement was necessary to continue functioning of executive body.
    Governor General, better known as the Viceroy, was supreme head of India and the representative of British crown in British India. After signing the Independence treaty, at the request of Indian leaders, Lord Mountbatten became Acting – Governor-General of India.
    Governor-General was supposed to oversee executive tasks with the help of ad hoc cabinet formed under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru. Mountbatten presided over the post till November 1947, before leaving for England.
    Departure of Mountbatten set in motion something unprecedented, swearing in of C. Rajagopalachari as Governor General of India. An Indian became a Viceroy for the first time and he was the last person to hold the post. Rajaji presided over the post till 26th January, 1950, functioning under the advice of an ad-hoc cabinet.
    Constituent assembly accepted constitution of India on 26th January, 1950. India became an independent sovereign state and Dr Rajendra Prasad was appointed as first President of India, thereby suspending the authority of Governor General.
    First general elections were held in 1952, under the guidance of newly accepted constitution. The rest, as they say, is history.
    The following site gives some interesting views on the subject.
    http://greatgameindia.com/did-india-really-become-independent-on-august-15th-1947/
    Regards
    Rajendran

    1. Thanks, Rajendran. I wrote on that subject trying to keep it as simple as possible to trigger to go into details . Dr Wagle, Mr Joglekar and you had added so much valuable information, we can a complete chapter in a history book. Fantastic.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s